what is current?

What Is Current?

current refers to the rate at which electric charge flows through a conductor, which can be in the form of a wire or any other conductive material. The number of electrons that pass in one second is equal to the charge divided by the charge of an electron. The current measurement unit is Ampere, and it is denoted by the symbol I (uppercase letter) or i (lowercase letter).

  • Ampere=Columb /Second      
  • 1 ampere = (6.242∙1018 e/sec) ∙(-1.602 10-19Coulomb/e)

When an electric field is applied to any conductor, electrons will start to move towards positive. In conductor ,current flows from positive to negative direction which is opposite to the direction of Electron. As long as Electron move through conductor current will flow in in it.

Here Voltage provides energy required to produce current.

“Voltage (V) is equal to energy (Joule, J) divided by charge (Coulomb, C), represented as V = dW/dQ.”

  • Voltage (V) is the electric potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit. It is measured in volts (V).
  • Energy (Joule, J) represents the work done or the amount of electrical potential energy transferred in an electrical system.
  • Charge (Coulomb, C) is the quantity of electric charge flowing through the circuit.

The equation “V = dW/dQ” represents the definition of voltage as the derivative of energy with respect to charge. It indicates that voltage is the amount of energy transferred per unit of charge. The correct units for voltage are joules per coulomb (J/C), which are equivalent to volts (V).

A voltage source applies a potential difference that creates an electric field, allowing charged particles to flow from one terminal through a transducer or load (such as an electric bulb or motor) to the other terminal. The voltage source can be a battery, an electric generator, or a power supply.

Current Types

1. DC Current

Direct Current (DC) flows in one direction only, meaning the electric charge moves consistently in a single path. Mobile batteries and laptop batteries are sources of DC current, as they provide a continuous flow of electric charge in one direction.

2. AC Current

  1. AC Current: Alternating Current (AC) changes in a sine waveform, oscillating between positive and negative values. This means that the direction of current flow in an AC circuit reverses periodically at a certain frequency, typically 50 or 60 hertz (Hz).
  2. The power supply provided by electric companies to households is typically in the form of AC current. AC power is used for residential, commercial, and industrial applications due to its efficiency in transmission and distribution.
  3. Many common household appliances, such as fans, air conditioners, lamps, and motors, are designed to operate on AC current. These devices are engineered to take advantage of the alternating nature of the current and convert it into the mechanical or light energy required for their respective functions.

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